Business-to-Business (B2B) commerce encompasses all electronic transactions of goods or services carried out between companies. In this type of e-commerce, producers and wholesalers are normally involved in traditional commerce.
The Business-to-Consumer type of e-commerce is distinguished by the establishment of electronic commercial relationships between companies and final consumers. It corresponds to the retail section of e-commerce, where retailers normally operate in traditional commerce.
These types of relationships can be more dynamic and easier, but also more sporadic or discontinued. This type of commerce has developed a lot due to the advent of the web, and there are already several virtual stores and shopping centers on the Internet that sell all types of consumer goods, such as computers, software, books, shoes, cars, food products, financial products, digital publications, etc.
When compared to a situation of retail purchase in traditional commerce, the consumer usually has more information available in the form of informative content and there is a general idea that he buys cheaper, without prejudice to often obtaining an equally personalized and personalized service. ensure the speed in fulfilling your order.
Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) e-commerce encompasses all electronic transactions of goods or services carried out between consumers. Generally, these exchanges are carried out (intermediation) through a third party, which provides the computer platform where the transactions are carried out. An example of this type of e-commerce is Artemix, an online craft marketplace.
In C2B there is a complete reversal of the traditional sense of exchanging goods. This type of e-commerce is very common in crowdsourcing-based projects. A number of individuals make their services or products available to be purchased by companies looking for this type of good.
Some examples of these practices are websites where several designers submit proposals for a company's logo and where only one of them is selected and effectively purchased. Another very common type of platform for this type of commerce is markets where royalty-free photographs, images, media and design elements are sold.
This part of e-commerce encompasses all online transactions between companies and the Public Administration. This is an area that involves a large number and diversity of services, namely in the areas of taxation, social security, employment, registration and notary services, etc. The type of services has been increasing considerably in recent years with the investments made in e-government.
The Consumer-to-Administration model encompasses all electronic transactions carried out between individuals and the Public Administration.
The main advantage of e-commerce is its ability to reach a market on a global scale, without necessarily implying a great financial effort. The limits of this type of commerce are not defined geographically, which allows consumers to make a global choice, obtain the necessary information and compare offers from all potential suppliers, regardless of their location.
By allowing direct interaction with the final consumer, e-commerce makes it possible to reduce the length of the distribution chain for products, or even, at times, eliminate it completely. In this way, a direct channel is created between the producer or service provider and the final consumer, allowing the offering of products and services that suit the individual preferences of the target market.
E-commerce allows suppliers to be closer to their customers, resulting in gains in productivity and competitiveness for companies; as a result, the consumer benefits from the improvement in service quality, resulting from greater proximity and more efficient pre- and post-sales support. With the new forms of e-commerce, consumers now have virtual stores open 24 hours a day.
Cost reduction is another very important advantage normally associated with e-commerce. The more trivial a given commercial process is, the greater the probability of its success, resulting in a significant reduction in transaction costs and, of course, in prices charged to customers.
The main disadvantages associated with e-commerce are as follows:
*Strong dependence on information and communication technologies (ICT);
*Insufficient legislation that adequately regulates new e-commerce activities, both nationally and internationally;
*Market culture averse to electronic forms of commerce (customers cannot touch or try the products);
*Loss of user privacy, loss of cultural and economic identity of regions and countries;
*Insecurity in carrying out commercial transactions.